Seduced: Art and Sex from Antiquity to Now
London: Merrell, 2007
The most interesting is that of Professor Martin Kemp, entitled 'Divine Love and Carnal Pleasures'. He ranges enticingly from Peruzzi's 'The Rape of Ganymede' to 'Naked Woman Approaching a Man' by Giulio Romano and onto Agostino Carracci's scene of five copulating couples cavorting in a wooded grove entitled 'The Golden and Age', embellished by loosened drapery and well-fulfilled Cupid figures. The Romano presents woman as the proactive partner, addressing a startled male. Or is he actually being subjected to rape? The historical convention seems to relate rape to an act by males upon females, while the act of seduction is perfected by women on males. 'The Golden Age' Kemp advises the reader (and viewer), was an 'undefined era of prelapsarian pleasure before sex was condemned as a sin and bore it with buckets of guilt'. Fragonard is placed in pole position with his famous painting 'The Beautiful Servant (Pointless Resistance)' - a seemingly joyful exercise revealing the minimum of flesh, seductively wrapped, or unwrapping, as distinct from the explicit scantily clad couplings exhibited by Jeff Koons and partner. Restlessly and interminably the whole study of seduction as mooted pans through several centuries.
Marina Wallace contributes four chapters. In 'Exposures', Chapter 5, she focuses upon the formative role of early photography and the exchange of ideas between painters and pioneer photographers such as Alexis-Louis-Charles Gouin in France. The interaction, for example, of a photographer, such as Ingres, and of Nadar with the socially conscious painter Gustave Courbet, and the overlap of this work with the ideas of the romantic writer Pierre Louys, picks up on lesbian and broader classical themes. Wallace here comments tellingly:
One of photography's most significant contributions in the field of erotic representation is that while referring to other visual forms, it progressively forged an authoritative visual vocabulary that detached itself from painting and found its own powerful voice.
Surrealist artists were a clear case here. In a further chapter, 'The Pleasures of Reading', Catina Albano shifts focus onto the role of the written text in collusion, describing sexual pleasures and episodes running from Pietro Aretino (early 16th century) right through to Cleland's famous romping epic series, Fanny Hill (1748-1749) and the contemporaneous 'Les Liaisons Dangereux of Choderlos de Laclos'. Clearly important, if ancillary, in the realm of acute titillation, text could prove a vital catalyst, at least that is until the 20th century video revolution.
The essay by Joanne Bernstein, 'The Artist and Muse', consolidates the role of 'inspirational sex' and reaches an appropriate climacteric with Picasso's 25 etchings made at the age of 87 of Raphael and La Fornarina, inspired, it is said, by two Ingres paintings (which he would have seemingly seen at the Ingres Centennial retrospective at the Petit Palais, Paris in 1968). Picasso's delicate treatment of the joyful interaction of the sexes is deemed both explicit and comical by the author. This perhaps is indeed a rare conjunction within the overall theme of 'Seduction'. In many works there is a marked absence of wit and humour.
The exhibition organisers have chosen a difficult field, notorious for its perils and pitfalls. They have contrived to select pleasurable works. And yet to the 21st century seasoned and jaded eye, boredom and monotony soon looms. The contributions by Professors Kemp and Wallace compensate for this stretch by providing an intellectual and art-historical framework in a very short frame of time and space. The book is free of the subterranean gloom that permeates the physical spaces of the Barbican Gallery, and yet it falls short of a comprehensive appraisal, always on the edge of losing clear focus.
Will the exhibition provide British schools with an educational resource? If not, the catalogue may fall short of youthful expectations as much as of middle-aged titillation and also provide the local authority with a dilemma over the legal meaning of 'explicit'. It still ends up on the top shelf. On the positive side, the venture into seeking out the role of text, 'The Pleasures of Reading' by Caterina Albano, opens up the question of the potential of literature to activate 'still' imagery. This might be an avenue for further research. Again, video leaps ahead in the interim, as did 'blue movies' in their day.
Robert Rauschenberg: Combines
It was only a matter of time before the work of Robert Rauschenberg would again receive a star billing in Paris, and there could be no better venue than the Centre Pompidou. The reason is that the work literally benefits from the implied temporariness of the 'rooms' at the Centre.
Papunya painting: out of the desert
Art is a central force in Aboriginal culture and a critical political tool. Through an understanding of the art it has been possible to make a case for Aboriginal rights. The Sydney Olympics in 2000 were used both to expose the dreadfully inhuman conditions under which many Australian Aborigines still lived, and also to incorporate Aboriginal art and ritual into contemporary culture. Thousands of Aborigines took part in the superb theatrical ceremony; a great part of which was inspired and dedicated to the history of Australia before the arrival of white European settlers.
Libeskind impacting Denver
Flying into Denver airport, the Rockies rise high in the distance, a constant reminder of the frontier context here, even today. Likewise, the apparently palisade-topped outline of Gio Ponti's 1972 Denver Art Museum (which contains an evocative Native American collection, appropriately) provides a reminder of, even in those far off times, an architect's urge to supply a signature building.
Book review: Sir John Vanbrugh: Storyteller in Stone
A new biographical study of the architect Sir John Vanbrugh (1664-1726) is most timely. The historical importance of this remarkable polymath has been in need of revision for four decades or more. Vanbrugh was positioned in different ways by Sir John Summerson, for example, or by Sir Niklaus Pevsner. On one hand, due recognition was paid to him for the designs of Castle Howard, and for Blenheim Palace, especially. But in the past two decades, the relationship of such buildings to their total landscape has been reconsidered, as has the work by Vanbrugh's collaborators, such as Nicholas Hawksmoor, and even successors, such as Capability Brown.