The birth of graffiti
London/New York/Munich: Prestel, 2007
Earlier this fall, the Australian author and critic Germaine Greer drew positive attention to the actual value of graffiti in London, and to the high quality of the work of this city's star graffiti artist, Banksy, a brilliant but fugitive 'writer' still unaccounted for and 'on the run'. As Greer said, 'what he does is jokey, wry, fundamentally civilised'. In fact Greer became an early connoisseur of graffiti, when thirty-five years ago her newly acquired and run down North Kensington house came with a graffito attached, which tipped her into the purchase. Her 'text' acquired said 'Boredom is counter-revolutionary' a sentiment which she could not have better expressed herself. But it went eventually. As Greer comments, 'whether at Lascaux 17,000 years ago, or in West Arnhem Land (Australia) 50,000 years ago, art began on a wall. If the sandblasters had been around in either place, we would have lost a precious inheritance'.
Thirty-five years ago just about takes us back to New York, 1973. In that same winter, this reviewer was himself in New York with Eduardo Paolozzi. Naar was in the graffiti 'war zone' and sadly we weren't. The work would have greatly intrigued Paolozzi, already then distancing himself from the blandishments of those who would lazily brand his own work as Pop Art. He would have found common cause with the New York graffiti artists, and affiliated too with the much deeper socio-economic relevance of their work. Naar's full-frame photographs capture the sharpness of formal imagery in the crisp winter sunlight often enhanced by the long shadows of the surrounding buildings backing on to the sidings. Mailer, for his part, recognised that across America big socio-economic changes were in the offing and expressed this in The Faith of Graffiti. The 'writings' all caught that mood, to the extent that Naar's documentation of the imagery is now historical, even archaeological in importance. Unfortunately, no curators in the main museums seem to have caught the art implications of such messages for the museums: the derelict buildings and their walls are almost all gone. The subway coaches (the old Redbird cars), the buses and vans are all gone. There was mayor Lindsay's furious scorched earth policy flaming around, and as Mailer himself had found when interviewing the graffiti writers such as 'Japan 1' and 'Cay 161' for the book (rather than Warhol), they valued the fame this gave them through exposure in the book itself. The work was real, to Mailer's pleasure and credit, and the 'writers' were for real, on the front line, not pasticheurs.
City authorities and real estate owners might not consider themselves fortunate that graffiti is by definition originally incised on the available surfaces, not sprayed on or painted upon. Pompeii and Rome had offered early examples of the art. But it was the advance of industrial technology that made the spray can accessible to all, as at any DIY store. Naar has observed the development of 'writing' at this key early stage, in New York, and has now at last brought forward his unpublished photographs to reveal the richness of the painted work, its spontaneous creativity, and its anthropological tribalism that ensured that the risks were worth taking, as a civilising development. All that was consolidated in the short space of winter 1973. As one who experienced this city that winter, it can be witnessed that Naar was afoot in the 'war zone', at just the right moment. The full-frame photos capture the sharpness of that formal range of imagery exposed in the sharp winter sunlight, between the long shadows.
Jon Naar's book here is very smartly ordered; for example, all the titles of the pictures are aggregated on a single page spread at the end of the book. To scan through their evocative titles is akin to reading an inspiring poetry. Likewise, the nicknames, or noms de plume of the artist 'writers' all occur in sequence together at the end, separately from the run of the illustrations themselves. For example, Tad, Taki, Tango, The Fly One, The Man, The Moons, The Old Sheik, T.N.T, Trease and Turok for the 'T's. The imagery rated by these writers showed a visual richness that gave an authenticity and cultural relevance to the work, fully captured by Naar. Corinne Robins, as art historian critic and poet, had written recently in her introduction to Jon Naar's book 'Getting the Picture' (2005) that 'Jon Naar's graffiti photographs to this day remain a revelation of the spirit of a particular time and place. To see beauty in the subways, to make a gorgeous book out of urban ugliness, a book where the subject matter and the photographer's angle of vision are one, has turned out to be a historic achievement'.
To single out any examples from such uniform high quality is an impossible act to justify. However, 'Tenement Building', listed under 'Freddy' as writer, offers an almost Quattrocento purity of vertical perspective and figures 'ambulante', uncropped clarity in that New York winter sunlight. By contrast, 'Bronx Plaza' by 'Jungle' shows how 'writing' embellishes the assumed monumentality of the steps and adjacent sculptural relief. This reveals the creative fraternisation of the 'writer' with the commissioned sculptor of the reliefs - no offence meant here. The wide expanse of 'Coney Boardwalk' depicted by Naar offers an escape from the constrictions of urban space. 'Skip' was here.
Time moves on. The 'writers' recorded by Naar must all by now be in their early fifties or late forties. This remarkable document will ensure that whatever their ultimate fate in the jungle wars of Manhattan/Brooklyn the brilliance of their 'writing' will survive for posterity and become even an inspiration to further generations now ranging into cyberspace.
Matthew Barney: River of Fundament
Matthew Barney (b1967), best known for his CremasterCycle (1994-2002), comprising five films, with accompanying photographs, drawings, sculptures and installations, filled with anatomical allusions to the position of the reproductive organs during the embryonic process of sexual differentiation, is back.
When Culture Met Industry
The fifth edition of the Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism/Architecture (UABB), Urban Borders, opened on 6 December in the city of Shenzhen, and 11 December in Hong Kong in its fourth edition.
Graphic Heroes, Magic Monsters: Japanese Prints by Utagawa Kuniyoshi from the Arthur R. Miller Collection
The proliferation of Japanese-style comics (manga), rapidly expanding international audiences for them and large manga sections in bookstores might seem like a modern phenomenon but is rooted in hundreds of years of Japanese history and popular culture.
The International Asian Art Fair
Between April 1 and 6, the International Asian Art Fair celebrated its tenth season at the Seventh Regiment Armory in New York City. The fair is organised from London by Brian and Anna Haughton, who also organise the International Fine Art Fair in New York in May, the International Art and Design Fair and the International Fine Art and Antique Dealers Show, both in New York in October, and the International Ceramics Fair in London in June.
The Possibilities of Paint: An Interview with John Zinsser by Cindi Di Marzo
For John Zinsser, painting and paint are more than a process and medium; they are his subjects. During his career, Zinsser has remained committed to the possibilities of painting and abstraction, while the contemporary art market moves from one trend to the next. His method of reducing and defining the terms of his art grounds it in basic premises, which then open up a vast range of potential effects and responses.