An invitation to play – subverting the fixtures of social anxiety.
Tate Modern, London
1 May–1 September 2013
by MK PALOMAR
Gallagher’s first major UK solo exhibition AxMe is now showing at Tate Modern. The word Axme “is a play on the black American vernacular for ‘ask’ .. [and]..the name of the [fictional] Acme Corporation…that supplies Wile E. Coyote with … devices to capture Road Runner”2, thus underlining Gallaghers playful and richly multifarious practice. Exploring “a diversity of sources …[within] a varied and abundant oeuvre”3 Gallagher shapes issues of African American narrative into a cross-cultural everyday. Gates understands how Gallagher’s warmth reaches beyond regressive perceptions, and while focused on the “presence and absence of black history”,4 pushes past social constricts, reflecting fresh views of shared narratives.
Likening her methodology “ to the repetitions of jazz …retuning to the constant musical narrative…in a variety of different ways,.” it is; so Professor Mary Evans (Visiting Professor LSE Sociology and Gender) Gallagher’s “variety of ways, and the absence of an over-determined understanding and portrayal of the past, that make this exhibition so engaging.”5
Gallagher’s exhibition begins with a temptation to scribble all over the walls. The opening space is papered (from floor to ceiling) in pages from children’s penmanship exercise books – dotted lines that guide handwriting across a page. The itch to mark (only controlled for this author by a nervous gallery attendant) is satiated by Odalisque (2005). Part wall-drawing part projection this excellent example of Gallagher’s engaging humour, hovers in front of and interacts with the papered wall. Having taken the place of a life model clad in harem dress, Gallagher (neither slave nor concubine), in repose on a daybed, is eying Matisse. But this is not Matisse as (Man Ray photographed), instead it is Freud being studied by Gallagher while he, intent on not looking at her, examines his notebook. This marvellous image contains a labyrinth of readings. “…mischievously tweaking racial and gender politics …” “Freud’s fascination with a lost past,”6 the problematic relationship between sexualised model and male artist in fine art his story, and if Matisse was back at his drawing, this image also references a major change on the brink of crashing in to Modernism.
Writer John Elderfield7 describes a film of Matisse, in the process of drawing Young Woman in White, Red Background (1946) (a young women reclining on a chaise-lounge). As Matisse holds his brush between himself and his paper, his hand momentarily gestures the outline of the woman's head, before laying down the mark. Elderfield relates that when Matisse saw the film8 he said he felt "suddenly naked", because he saw how his hand "made a strange journey of its own" in the air before drawing on the model's features.9 So this multilayered image could be said to herald the actions and performances that emerged through the 1950s and 60s in fine art practice challenging the hallowed position of the painter in his studio. And we might wonder what Gallagher’s Freud has hovering over his page, what gesture he might make as he attempts to fix it to the surface, and whether seeing himself so studied by this fearless intelligence he might also feel suddenly naked. What a joy to imagine how Freud might respond if he looked up to see Gallagher studying him so intently.
The Yellow paintings – details of which have often been used in publicity and reviews for Gallagher’s recent exhibitions are more fascinating in life than the single documentations suggest. Each large picture contains over 300 separate images. Found photographs of African American headshots, embellished embossed sculpted and decorated with paint and plasticine. Richly tactile their thick surface takes us back to child play and the school room again – yet all these many images, fixed between the 40s and 70s, of skin lightening creams and wigs, reflect a time of troubled identity, race history, civil rights and women’s rights; when Mad Men-type advertising agencies10 held a tight hold on the aesthetics of identity and women wore missile-shaped bras.
Gallagher explains “The wig ladies are fugitives…from another time and place…liberated from the race magazines of the past…I’ve transformed them here on the pages that once held them captive.”11
Bird in Hand (2006) has Gallagher combining Melville’s Moby Dick character, Captain Ahab and Peg Leg Bates12, into a massive Straw Peter-type presence, collaged in plastacine and various printed papers, this haunting figure is another example of Gallagher’s richly layered cross culturally sourced images. And while Gallagher leads us from her Black Paintings (1998–2002) – where little is revealed apart from the glossed reflection of the viewer consumed into the darkness – into an open white space filled with lyrical watercolours of various marine organisms “reminiscent of pages from a scientists note book,”14 we are; as though led from night time into a white garden, reminded how ‘dark and light’ (words so deeply embedded into our language) not only describe racial identity, but also determine the condition we are in and the spaces we all inhabit.
Gallagher’s refreshing viewpoint; echoes that of the African American artist William Pope L. Self proclaimed as “The Friendliest Black Artist in America”,15 Pope L also uses humour and the surreal in his performances to push us to think beyond the monstrous obscenities that haunt the African American narrative. Yet as Cynthia Carr reminds us in her essay on Pope L’s 1991 performance Tompkins Square Crawl, racism has embedded into the reception of a work by an artist of colour the representation of all peoples of colour. Carr explains a “…spectator was distressed by what he saw as the compromising and demeaning position that Pope L was taking, crawling along the ground on his stomach wearing a suite. And the fact of a white cameraman recording this black man’s act…Chris Burden once crawled down the street through broken glass but he had the privilege of being identified as an artist – or a lunatic – not the representative of all white people.” 16
Whether the 22 years between Pope L’s Tompkins Square Crawl and Gallagher’s Axme exhibition, have gone any distance towards shifting the individual or collective reception of works by practitioners of colour, is impossible to estimate. But Gallagher’s works, rather than forcing a bitter pill of heinous narrative on her audience, exude a warmth that entrances and enticing us to better understand the troubled story of difference between and among peoples, and to dance forward together with more grace and mutual care.
12. Clayton Bates (1907-1998). Born in Southern Carolina, began dancing aged five and lost his leg in an accident aged 12 - taught himself to dance. http://www.atdf.org/awards/pegleg.html
George Gittoes has worked in many war zones over the past 40 years, including Rwanda, Bosnia, Somalia and, most recently, Iraq and Afghanistan. His work depicts a variety of horrors that he has observed in his visits, or which have been relayed to him.
The Royal Academy is currently thronged with jostling human bodies and body parts. These are not, however, composed of the flesh and blood of the great art going public, but are inanimate bits and figures, all in the name of Auguste Rodin, the great French sculptor, who died in 1917.
The Steins Collect. Matisse, Picasso and the Parisian Avant-Garde
When Leo Stein settled in Paris in late 1902 it was with the same romantic intention, as so many before him, to become an artist. Dutifully he spent hours at the Louvre and Musée du Luxembourg, enrolled in art classes and found himself a studio adjacent to his flat on 27 rue de Fleurus.
Sharon Booma's Odes and Intimations of Immortality
The seductive allure of Sharon Booma's paintings defies description. Viewing one of the artist's oil and mixed media inventions, one feels an attraction to surface beauty, the pull of colour and texture, and then the plunge into deeper mystery. Booma's keen sense of balance finds harmony in disarray and between dissimilar elements and unusual juxtapositions.
In the closing years of the seventeenth century, the youthful Peter the Great toured western Europe with a view to modernising Russian culture along the lines of a European state. The developments which arose from this initiative had a profound impact on Russia for the following three centuries and many of its consequences are still with us today. France had a special place in this process and its impact was felt in all aspects of Russian culture, including architecture, painting, music and language.