Hassam's ability to equate the city with the country, showing both places at the same level of natural calm is one of his strongest talents. Composing his paintings based on the shape of a street and the movement of people and carriages, Hassam captured the constant flux of a single part of a city or a town. He would often depict both the busy side of the avenue as well as the line of buildings or grass running parallel to it. Take for instance, 'A Back Road' from 1884, one of the first pieces on view. It shows a receding dirt road full of pebbles, overgrowth and holes. The road takes up the bottom of the canvas, placing the viewer on the road. Up ahead a man on a wagon drives into the distance on the ever-decreasing curving dirt. This is quite a romantic Barbizon-like rendering of a pastoral scene, with billowing white clouds overhead and a line of trees on the horizon showing one type of everyday life. In a much later piece from 1907, using the bottom of the canvas as an entry point, Hassam approaches Lower Manhattan with the same mentality. Painted from above rather than at eye level, the street, too, recedes in the distance. A wall of buildings forms either side and slowly pushes the street smaller and smaller. While a mass of people moving towards work could counteract the solitary farmer on the dirt road, both pieces convey a sense of a natural, daily event. Here, the people blur together, indistinguishable from one another in a similar way to the trees in the other piece. Hassam renders non-judgemental views of the city, with glorious sunlit classical buildings and they appear as organic as the dirt road.
In truth, Hassam relies heavily on the street scene, which at times he can be accused of overusing. However, this provides interesting points of comparison between the pieces over his career. He is interested in the movement of people. Rarely does a person in Hassam's paintings engage the audience, let alone face them. Instead, they walk or look towards their destination. Hassam worked largely from photographs, resulting in this purposely uninvolved, distracted viewer.
Some might visit the show and claim that Hassam borrowed too closely from the French Impressionists: his series of streams of flags on city streets during the First World War echo Claude Monet's 'La rue Montorgueil, Paris', during the celebration of June 30, 1878; his rocky ocean scenes recall Monet's images of Manneporte, Etretat; and rainy streets remind of Gustave Caillebotte's 'Paris Street, Rainy Day'. But these are easy comparisons and art is characterised by a constant exchange of ideas. Furthermore, Hassam may borrow and use the style, but he shows a very different place. He captures New York City and New England through the eyes of a native, mimicking but departing from Monet or Pisarro's Paris and French countryside.
True, Hassam follows the French Impressionists by playing with the effects of light through manipulation of colours and changing the surface of the paint. However, Hassam does so with a concern for the way in which environmental changes affect human beings and daily routines. Here, standing out from sunny days, we find his most unique, breathtaking and staggering works. 'Cab stand at Night, Madison Square', from 1891, exemplifies this concept. Here, trees cast shadows on the already heavy snow as more flakes blur the scene. Presumably illuminated by a street lamp, men costumed in top hats and long, dark coats, stand by a long line carriages waiting for a fare. Hassam captures a casual moment under the tough conditions of night and snow.
Frederick Childe Hassam was born in 1859, in Dorchester, Massachusetts. He married in 1884 and moved to Paris two years later. Hassam and his wife moved to New York in 1889 where they remained until his death on August 27, 1935.
Francis Bacon: Portraits and Heads
Francis Bacon: Portraits and Heads – The loss of faith in humanity in the late 1940s was such that the human image in art became increasingly difficult to portray. The existential despair expressed by Jean-Paul Sartre in Nausea (1938), found a visual counterpart in the images of despair and alienation of Francis Bacon, the expressionism of Oskar Kokoschka and the apocalyptic visions of Arthur Boyd. For the most part, abstraction in the visual arts dominated because, after the horrors of Auschwitz, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, artists found images of humanity impossible to create.
American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880
In the opening column of the curator Andrew Wilton’s excellent catalogue summary, The Sublime in the Old World and the New he refers most appropriately to President Thomas Jefferson’s famous government scientific expedition, carried out by Captain Lewis and Lieutenant Clark. Two years were allocated to the quest for the true course of the great Missouri River, tracing it up from its confluence with the Mississippi at St Louis to its source in the Rocky Mountains, to cross the continental divide and then to follow the Columbia River to its Pacific exit.
New German Painting – book review
This book, edited by Christoph Tannert, provides a well-edited selection of contemporary work by younger artists and allows a structured 'road map' about what is actually going on. In fact, the scene is very dynamic and innovative, precisely as contributor Graham Bader indicates.